574 THE IRON INDUSTRY.
000, while South Russia raised 13,000,000 tons. The coal of the Dombrovski basin is an extension of the Silesian deposit and gives a poorer coke than is made in German and Austrian territory. The blast furnaces therefore bring almost all their supply from Austrian Silesia and Moravia'. This condition has caused a very slow development of the coal industry, the increase in output in the three years from 1897 to 1900 being only 6 per cent. In this latter year Poland produced 26 per cent, of all the coal raised, the South contributing 69 per cent, and all other portions of the Empire only 5 per cent.
There are some deposits of iron ore in Poland, and nearly one hundred mines where brown hematite and spherosiderite are found, but the ore is lean and variable, holding 20 to 50 per cent, of iron and the amount produced is unimportant. In 1899 only 488,000 tons were raised, half of which came from the province of Radom. The composition, was 30 per cent, of iron in the raw stone and 35 per cent, when roasted. In recent years the ores of the Krivoi Eog have been brought 700 miles to replace the local supply. There are 40 iron plants in the district, but they are as a rule very, small. Almost all the iron is made in four works, of which the principal is the Huta Bankowa, operated by French capital, possessing three blast furnaces making together about 250 tons of iron per day, and eleven open-hearth furnaces. There is quite a forge and tube plant at Warsaw, with open-hearth furnaces running, on imported pig-iron, though blast furnaces are now building. The Briansk Company, which has a works in South Eussia at Ekaterinoslav, also has a plant in Poland at Grodno.
In 1888 Poland produced 51;000 tons of steel and in 1899 it made 282,000 tons, and yet owing to the advance in South Russia the percentage of total production made in this province was less at the later period.
SEC. XXVIe.—The Center:
The district of Central Russia is one of the oldest in the Empire and includes an area two hundred miles square, with Moscow at its northwest corner. There is a little coal found here, but it is the worst in Russia, being high in ash and sulphur and of poor structure. Formerly there were large forests, but two-thirds of this area is now denuded and charcoal has risen to prohibitory prices. There is a limited amount of brown and spathic ores, the latter in the best